2024 Federal Income Tax Brackets, Standard Deductions, Tax Rates

Learn about the latest IRS inflation adjustments

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) updates federal income tax rates, allowances, and thresholds every year. These figures are applicable to the tax law provisions that are adjusted annually for inflation. The top tax rate is 37% for returns filed by individual taxpayers for the 2024 tax year, which are filed in 2025. The standard deduction, tax bracket ranges, other deductions, and phaseouts are adjusted annually for inflation.

Key Takeaways

  • The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) updates federal tax rates, allowances, and thresholds every year by adjusting them for inflation.
  • You can claim a standard deduction to reduce your taxable income as well as an additional deduction if you are age 65 or older and/or blind.
  • Federal tax brackets range from 10% to 37%.
  • There are a number of different individual tax credits, including the earned income credit and the qualified adoption expenses credit.
  • Contributions to tax-advantaged retirement accounts generally change annually.

Federal Tax Rates and Brackets

There are seven federal tax brackets for tax year 2024. They are: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%. The highest earners fall into the 37% range, while those who earn the least are in the 10% bracket.

The tax rates and brackets for 2024 are provided in the following chart.

2024 Tax Brackets
Rate Married Filing Jointly Single Individual Head of Household Married Filing Separately
10% $23,200 or less $11,600 or less $16,500 or less $11,600 or less?
12% Over $23,200 Over $11,600 Over $16,550 Over $11,600
22% Over $94,300 Over $47,150 Over $63,100 Over $47,150
24% Over $201,050 Over $100,525 Over $100,500 Over $100,525
32% Over $383,900 Over $191,950 Over $191,950 Over $191,950
35% Over $487,450 Over $243,725 Over $243,700 Over $243,725
37% Over $731,200 Over $609,350 Over $539,900 Over $609,350

There is no longer a personal exemption due to the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Taxpayers whose net investment income exceeds the IRS limit ($200,000 for an individual taxpayer, $250,000 married filing jointly, or $125,000 married filing separately) are subject to a 3.8% net investment income tax (NIIT) on investment income above those limits.

Standard Deduction

The standard deduction is a specific figure that taxpayers can use to reduce their taxable income when they file their annual tax returns. Note that taxable income is your adjusted gross income (AGI) less any itemized deductions or your standard deduction.

2024 Standard Deductions

The deduction set by the IRS for the 2024 tax year is as follows:

The additional standard deduction amount for an individual who is aged or blind is $1,550. That amount increases to $1,950 for individuals who are unmarried and if they aren’t surviving spouses. The standard deduction for claiming a dependent is $1,300 or $450 plus the individual’s earned income—whichever is greater.

Capital Gains

Capital gains rates are lower than a taxpayer’s ordinary income rate. But they depend on the taxpayer’s taxable income and filing status. The maximum adjusted capital gains rates apply for both the regular income tax and the alternative minimum tax.

Your must pay a capital gains tax for the 2024 tax year if your income exceeds:

  • $94,050 for married couples filing jointly
  • $47,025 for married couples filing separately
  • $63,000 for the head of a household
  • $47,025 for single filers

In the 2024 tax year, the 15% rate applies to adjusted net capital gains for:

  • Joint returns of up to $583,750
  • Married individuals’ separate returns of up to $291,850
  • Head of household returns of up to $551,350
  • Single individual returns of up to $518,900

The applicable capital gains?rate is set at 20% for any income amounts above these ceilings.

Individual Tax Credits

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)

The maximum amount of the earned income tax credit (EITC) for taxpayers whose self-reported incomes were in the lowest income bracket and the taxable income levels for its thresholds and ceilings are also adjusted for inflation.

The maximum credit for three or more children is $7,830 in the 2024 tax year. For married couples filing jointly, the phaseout of the credit begins at $29,640 of adjusted gross income (or earned income, if higher) and the phase out ends at $66,819.


No EITC is allowed if the aggregate amount of investment income, such as from interest, dividends, net capital gains, or other passive activities, exceeds $16,600 in the 2024 tax year.

Qualified Adoption Expenses

The credit for qualified adoption expenses, as well as the special credit for the adoption of a child with special needs, amount to $16,810 for 2024. The exclusion from an employee’s income for qualified adoption expenses that are paid or reimbursed under an employer plan will be increased to the same level.

Lifetime Learning Credit

The maximum $2,000 per return lifetime learning credit (LLC) for qualified educational expenses for a taxpayer, spouse, or dependent is phased out for taxpayers with MAGI in excess of $80,000 ($160,000 for joint returns). In recent years, the lifetime learning credit has not been adjusted or inflation.

Foreign Earned Income Exclusion

The foreign earned income exclusion is set by the IRS at $126,500 for the 2024 tax year.

Alternative Minimum Tax

The alternative minimum tax (AMT) applies to alternative minimum taxable income, such as regular taxable income with certain tax benefits added back, in excess of an exemption level.

The alternative minimum tax exemption levels for the 2024 tax year are as follows:

  • $133,300 for joint returns
  • $85,700 for unmarried individuals
  • $66,650 for married people’s separate returns

These alternative minimum tax exemption levels phase out, in 2024, from:

  • $1,218,700 to $1,751,900 for joint returns
  • $609,350 to $952,150 for unmarried individuals
  • $609,350 to $875,950 for married people’s separate returns

The alternative minimum tax rate is 28% for alternative minimum taxable income up to a maximum of $232,600 (for 2024) for returns of married couples and single individuals ($116,300 in 2024, for married filing separately).

Increased Allowances: Fringe Benefits, Medical Spending Accounts, and Estates

The monthly limit for qualified transportation and qualified parking fringe benefits is $315 for the 2024 tax year.

The maximum salary reduction for contributions to health flexible spending accounts (FSAs) is $3,200 for 2024. The maximum carryover of unused amounts for cafeteria plans is $640 for 2024.

The thresholds and ceilings for participants in medical savings accounts (MSAs) are from:

  • $2,800 to $4,150 with a maximum out-of-pocket expense of $5,550 for self-coverage for 2024
  • $5,550 to $8.350 with a maximum out-of-pocket expense?of $10,200 for family coverage for 2024

For a decedent who died in 2024, the exemption level for the estate tax is set at $13.61 million for the 2024 tax year. The annual gift tax exclusion is $18,000 for 2024.

Retirement Plans

The IRS also sets limitations on retirement plan contributions and phaseout ranges. The income exclusion for employee contributions to employer retirement plans, such as 401(k)s, 403(b)s, 457 plans, and the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan, is $23,000 for the 2024 tax year, filed in 2025. The catch-up contribution for employees ages 50 and older is $7,500. The limitation for SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) retirement accounts is $16,000 for 2024.

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)

The deductible amount for individual retirement account (IRA) contributions is $7,000 for 2024. People ages 50 and older can contribute an additional $1,000 each year.


The phaseout levels for the deduction, though, are adjusted upward. If either a taxpayer or their spouse is covered by a workplace retirement plan during the year, the deduction may be reduced or phased out until it is eliminated.?

The phaseout ranges for tax year 2024 are:

  • If an individual is an active participant in an employer retirement plan, the deduction phaseout for adjusted gross incomes is $77,000–$87,000 for single individuals and heads of households, and $123,000–$143,000 for joint returns.
  • For an IRA contributor who is not an active participant in another plan but whose spouse is an active contributor, the phaseout ranges from $230,000 to $240,000.
  • For a married active contributor filing a separate return, there is no adjustment and the phaseout range will remain $0 to $10,000.

IRA phaseouts do not apply if neither a taxpayer nor their spouse is covered by a workplace retirement plan.

Roth IRAs

For the 2024 tax year, the phaseout ranges for Roth IRA contributions are $146,000 to $161,000 for single taxpayers and heads of households and $230,000 to $240,000 for joint returns. The Roth IRA phaseout for a married individual’s separate return remains at $0 to $10,000.

Saver’s Credit

Low-income taxpayers who make contributions to 401(k), 403(b), SIMPLE, SEP (Simplified Employee Pension), or certain 457 plans, as well as traditional and Roth IRAs, are entitled to claim a nonrefundable tax credit in addition to their exclusions or deductions.

Married taxpayers filing joint returns are eligible to claim a credit for contributions of up to $4,000 at a rate for the 2023 tax year of (2024 Saver's Credit limits had not been announced as of publication):

  • 50% with AGI up to $43,500
  • 20% with AGI up to $47,500
  • 10% with AGI up to $73,000

Heads of households can claim, in 2023, a credit for up to $2,000 of contributions at a rate of:

  • 50% with AGI up to $32,625
  • 20% with AGI up to $35,625
  • 10% with AGI up to $54,750

All other taxpayers are eligible to claim, for 2024, a credit for up to $2,000 of contributions at a rate of:

  • 50% with AGI up to $21,750
  • 20% with AGI up to $23,750
  • 10% with AGI up to $36,500

What Are the 2024 Tax Brackets?

The IRS did not change the federal tax brackets for 2024. There are still seven: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and a top bracket of 37%. However, the income thresholds for all tax brackets increased in 2024 to reflect the rise in inflation. So the amount of tax you will pay depends on your income and how you file your taxes—say, as a single filer or married filing jointly.

How Did Standard Deductions Change for the 2024 Tax Year?

The standard deduction rose in 2024. Here are the standard deduction amounts set by the IRS:

  • $14,600 for single filers
  • $14,600 for married couples filing separately
  • $21,900 for heads of households
  • $29,200 for married couples filing jointly
  • $29,200 for surviving spouses

Did the Child Tax Credit Change?

The child tax credit reverted back to pre-2021 levels in 2022, and the refundable portion of the credit for each child under 17 is adjusted for inflation. As of 2024 tax year, the refundable portion of the $2,000 child tax credit is $1,700.

The Bottom Line

Every year, usually in November, the IRS announces rates and inflation adjustments that affect federal taxes for the coming tax year, including tax brackets, standard deductions, tax credits, IRA rules, and more. It’s important to be aware of any changes that the IRS makes to file your taxes properly and avoid overpayment or underpayment.

Article Sources
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